Colfax County is located in north central New Mexico. Most of the county used to be known as the Maxwell (Miranda-Beaubien) Land Grant. Raton, Springer, Maxwell, Eagle Nest, Cimarron, and Angel Fire are here, as is Valle Vidal, the NRA Whittington Center, most of Vermejo Park Ranch and all of the Philmont Scout Ranch.

Named for Schuyler Colfax, 17th Vice President of the United States (under Ulysses S. Grant), Colfax County was formed in 1869 and contains 3,757 square miles of land and 11 square miles of water.

The county seat is Raton.